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Over the past century, there have been major shifts in the debates and theories concerning the question of development. In the post-war era, this evolution can be divided into four eras: the era of modernisation theory, the era of the New International Economic Order, the era of neoliberal globalisation, and the current transitional era following the 2007–2008 financial crisis. This dossier examines the historical and current thinking on development and offers an outline for a new socialist development theory.

ചൈനയിൽ അതിദാരിദ്ര്യം നിർമാർജനം ചെയ്യപ്പെട്ടിരിക്കുന്നതായി ചൈനീസ് സർക്കാർ പ്രഖ്യാപിച്ചത് 2021 ഫെബ്രുവരി 25-നാണ്. 141 കോടി ജനങ്ങളുള്ള ഒരു രാജ്യം കൈവരിച്ച ഈ ചരിത്രവിജയം, 1949-ലെ ചൈനീസ് വിപ്ലവം മുതൽ ഏഴു ദശകക്കാലം നീണ്ട പ്രക്രിയയുടെ ഫലമാണ്. സോഷ്യലിസം കെട്ടിപ്പടുക്കുന്നതിന്റെ അടിസ്ഥാനപരമായ ഒരു ഘട്ടം എന്ന നിലയിൽ ചൈന അതിദാരിദ്ര്യം ഇല്ലാതാക്കിയ പ്രക്രിയയെ വിശകലനം ചെയ്യുകയാണ് ഈ പഠനം.

Short-term pain, long-term gain defines the dangerous escalation by the United States and its Western allies against Russia and China. What is striking about the US’s agenda is that it seeks to prevent an inevitable historical process – Eurasian integration. The historical fact of Eurasian integration threatens the economic and political hegemony of the US and Northern Atlantic elites. These threats drive the New Cold War and dangerous attempts to use any means to ‘weaken’ both Russia and China.

We are witnessing a dangerous political, economic, and military escalation by the United States and its Western allies against Russia and China. The United States seeks to prevent a historical process that seems inevitable, the process of Eurasian integration, which threatens the primacy of the Euro-Atlantic elites. To secure global hegemony, the United States is committed to the pursuit of global nuclear primacy and is willing to use any means to ‘weaken’ both Russia and China – even at the risk of destroying the planet.

As part of its policy to dominate the American hemisphere, the United States organised the 9th Summit of the Americas, excluding Cuba, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Although Washington tirelessly seeks to impose a Global Monroe Doctrine on the planet, the summit was a fiasco. Down the road, however, the People’s Summit for Democracy flourished; here, thousands of people celebrated the democratic spirit which emerges from the struggles of peasants, workers, students, feminists, and all the people excluded from the gaze of the powerful.

The decline of the US empire, a geopolitical transition already in full swing, and the shaping of a multipolar world open up a new series of possibilities and discussions for Latin America and the Caribbean about the region’s possibility for autonomy in a transition away from dependence on capitalist countries that accounts for the needs of the majority.

It is perhaps fitting that US President Joe Biden arrived in Glasgow for COP26 on the climate catastrophe with 85 cars in tow. Tragically, the COP26 process has been swept into the matrix of dangerous geopolitical tensions, driven largely by the US in its quest to prevent China’s scientific and technological advancement. The debate driven by the West has been to malign developing countries and blame them for the climate catastrophe rather than focus on the necessary energy transition. Given the improbability of a serious discussion about climate finance taking place, it is likely that COP26 will be a failure.

On 25 February 2021, the Chinese government announced that extreme poverty had been abolished in China, a country of 1.4 billion people. This historic victory is a culmination of a seven-decade-long process that began with the Chinese Revolution of 1949. This study looks into the process through which China was able to eradicate extreme poverty as a fundamental step in constructing socialism.

The workers’ struggle of 1953 in Mattancherry in Kochi is an important, and yet relatively less documented, saga in the history of the working class movement in Kerala. The 75-day strike that the workers of Cochin Port waged culminated in police firing and the martyrdom of three workers. But the ruling powers ultimately could not prevent the workers from winning their demands.

Dossier no. 68 presents an analysis of the 1973 coup against Chile and its effects on the Third World and non-aligned countries. It was the Allende government’s policies to nationalise copper that spurred the coup, but the policy to nationalise copper was part of a broader conversation in the Third World to create a New International Economic Order which would restructure the neocolonial international economic system along democratic lines and give weight to the ideas and peoples of the Third World. In that sense, the US-driven coup against Chile was precisely a coup against the Third World.

This dossier analyses the role of Marxist dependency theory today as an important scientific tool to understand the processes of development and underdevelopment, the current anti-democratic and fascist trends, and emancipation processes in the Global South.

The African continent has for decades struggled with seriously high – and unpayable – levels of debt. The permanent debt crisis besieging them has not resulted from short-term market failures or from business cycles that will rebound, and that it is not fully a consequence of governments’ mismanagement of finances or deep-rooted corruption.

Dossier no. 42 explores how the enduring and expanding presence of foreign militaries in Africa continues to impede the realisation of political unity and territorial sovereignty.

Humanity is in the midst of a global upheaval, on a scale unseen in 500 years: namely, the relative decline of the United States and Europe, the rise of China and the Global South, and the resulting transformation of the global landscape. By examining the shifting relationship between China and the West over the past five centuries, we are able to better understand the current conjuncture and the important role that China has in shaping a new international order.

The African continent has for decades struggled with seriously high – and unpayable – levels of debt. The permanent debt crisis besieging them has not resulted from short-term market failures or from business cycles that will rebound, and that it is not fully a consequence of governments’ mismanagement of finances or deep-rooted corruption.

The fifth study from the Women of Struggle, Women in Struggle series discusses the life and political struggles of Josie Mpama (1903–1979), a leader in the resistance against colonial oppression and the apartheid system in South Africa. As a central figure in the Communist Party of South Africa and in society more broadly, Josie teaches us about the importance of grassroots and mass organising. Like so many women involved in radical politics, particularly in the Global South, Josie’s extraordinary political contributions and theoretical acumen have been overlooked and largely excluded from then mainstream historical record.

This publication, from Tricontinental and ALBA Movimientos, sets out on a path to recover the history of struggles, resistance, insurrections,and revolutionary dreams that have been led by womenand  LGBTQ+ people throughout the region at different times in order to find the seeds of the popular Latin American feminisms that exist today. Selected and produced by popular feminist activists in Latin America and the Caribbean, these stories continue to inspire us today.

With members of the Arctic Council refusing to work with Russia since the start of the Ukraine War, the future of the Arctic and its indigenous inhabitants (who are most affected by climate change and mining interests) is at stake. Geopolitical tensions in the region began more than a decade ago when Arctic Council states began to jockey for control over the area, not to stem the dangers of climate change, but to exploit minerals, metals, and fossil fuels within the Arctic Circle.

The extreme wealth inequality between 99% of the world’s population and the richest 1% is appalling and has produced immense social consequences. In the context of overwhelming poverty and social fragmentation, people turn to popular religions for relief and hope. Religion has played a key role in shaping the consciousness of the working class in Latin America, often – though not always – used in efforts to transform these populations into the mass base of the New Right. This text is an invitation to a conversation about working-class hope rooted in the struggles to transcend the Austerity State.

This dossier examines the history of Christianity and the rise of fundamentalism in Latin America, from looking at its emergence in the United States and how it has served as a tool of an imperialist project to its insertion in politics in the region today and its misogynist, anti-communist, and anti-democratic manifestations.